From Materials to Clinical: Advances in 3D-Printed Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering
Hewen Zhang#, Meng Wang#, Rui Wu#, Jianjun Guo, Aihua Sun, Zhixiang Li, Ruqing Ye*, Gaojie Xu, and Yuchuan Cheng*
本文从3D打印策略的角度对不同生物材料制造的软骨组织工程（CTE）支架进行了总结，对仿生结构策略和特殊功能设计进行了分类和讨论，并分析了上述CTE支架制备元件的优点和局限性 进行了详细分析。 最后，讨论了3D打印CTE支架的应用前景和挑战，为其当前的研究提供启发。
Osteoarthritis caused by articular cartilage defects is a particularly common orthopedic disease that can involve the entire joint, causing pain and even amputation. A global patient population of approximately 250 million people has an increasing demand for new therapies with excellent results, tissue engineering scaffolds have been proposed as a potential strategy for the repair and reconstruction of cartilage defects. The precise control and high flexibility of 3D printing provide a platform for subversive innovation. In this review, cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) scaffolds manufactured by different biomaterials were summarized from the perspective of 3D printing strategies, the bionic structure strategies and special functional designs were classified and discussed, and the advantages and limitations of the above CTE scaffold preparation elements were analyzed in detail. Finally, the application prospect and challenges of 3D printing CTE scaffold are discussed, which can provide enlightening insights for the current research on it.